A demonstration took place in Wrocław - 257 persons were arrested. In Poznań, an independent celebration was organized at workplaces (mainly the HCP) on the occasion of the 26th anniversary of the Poznanian June 1956. In the afternoon, a large demonstration took place at the monument to commemorate these events. This was broken up by the ZOMO, and 56 people were detained.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the [J. Dąbrowski] Secondary School No. VII J. Zielona Góra and at the Group of Electrical and Secondary Schools in Nowa Sól, signatures of teachers were gathered under petitions concerning the non-dismissal of the existing school directors".
The Regional Executive Committee of NSZZ "Solidarity" in the Silesia-Dąbrowa Region was established. Representatives of the Resistance Committee of NSZZ "Solidarity" Częstochowa together with representatives of underground organizations from the nine largest workplaces of the region set up the Interplant Coordination Committee of NSZZ "Solidarity" (MKK). It was headed by the editor-in-chief of "CDN", Zbigniew Muchowicz.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the hard coal mine <<Rozbark>>, a group of 800 miners gathered at the offices and demanded explanations regarding retirement pensions and disability benefits for miners".
The prices of alcoholic beverages, tea, and coffee were raised.
The MRKS group poured out a smelly substance at the "Komedia" Theater; at the time, this was directed by Olga Lipińska, who was viewed by some actors as a person collaborating with the authorities. As a result, the theater was closed down for a number of weeks.
In Warsaw, the Secret Police arrested Zofia Romaszewska, a co-organizer of Radio "Solidarity".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Kraków, the illegal radio station <<Solidarity Lesser Poland>> aired a 10-minute broadcast on the FM waveband.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the <<Łabędy>> Mechanical Equipment Complex, signatures were being collected under a petition protesting against the dismissal from work of 3 plant employees". The trial at the Provincial Court in Koszalin came to a close. Stanisław Sajkowski, Mirosław Wojnarowski, Zdzisław Wieczorek, and Grzegorz Ziembiński were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from 8 months to 1.5 years.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the ["Zamet"] Metallurgical Plant in Przemkowo, 200 employees of the PR-2 Department stopped work for a period of 80 minutes, demanding salary increases".
TKK published a program declaration "5xYES". The authors reminded everyone of the basic objectives of the fight being carried out by trade unionists during martial law, with the two most important being freeing the imprisoned and ensuring the resumption of operations by NSZZ "Solidarity". Readiness was declared to reach an agreement with the authorities in all contentious matters.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "Utilizing a waveband of Poznanian television, the illegal radio station <<Solidarity Greater Poland>> aired a broadcast during the break of the Poland versus France soccer match.
Radio "Solidarity" Greater Poland aired, in the break of the match of Poland versus USSR, its first broadcast using the radiowaves of the 1st program of Polish television.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Kraków, the illegal radio station "Radio <<Solidarity>> aired a 10-minute broadcast on the FM waveband".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "A group of 60 internees at the penal center in Kwidzyn organized a demonstration against martial law".
In Warsaw, representatives of the papers "CDN-Głos Wolnego Robotnika", "KOS", "Tygodnik Wojenny", and "Wola" set up the Committee for Cooperation of Independent Papers.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "The Provincial Governor of Poznań received a petition signed by 91 persons, protesting against the decision to dissolve the <<Teatr 8 Dnia>> theater".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At facility no. 3 of the Electric Machinery Plant "Celma" in Goleszowo, some to the employees commenced a protest against martial law by wearing resistors in their work clothing".
The Minister of Internal Affairs, Czesław Kiszczak, informed that 653 internees and 1,058 members of their families had received passports. In actual fact, however, only 21 people left the country.
The 1st Meeting of Foreign Offices of NSZZ "Solidarity" took place in Oslo.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "46 employees of Department PO-1 at the Railway Stock Repair Plant in Mińsk Mazowiecki refused to collect their monetary bonuses". Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On July 18, in Brenna, acid was poured over the obelisk dedicated to Citizens' Militia and Secret Police officers who had died fighting the reactionary underground."
An underground National Education Council was set up in Warsaw. The Council exercised social control over the activities of the underground Independent Education Team, among others controlling its expenses.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the Fordon prison, 30 people sentenced under the martial law decree organized a protest hunger strike". The creation of the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth was announced. This was a new "transmission belt" connecting the authorities and society. Apart from the PZPR, its satellite parties, i.e. the SD and ZSL, as well as officially recognized organizations of lay Catholics (PAX, ChSS, PZKS) took part in creating the Movement.
All interned women were freed, while 314 people were sent on holiday.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At Zwycięstwa Square in Warsaw, following the completion of the ceremonial changing of the guards, a symbolic flower cross was rearranged; until late at night, this was attended by a group of some 100-500 persons, who sung religious songs". Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On July 22, a helicopter was hijacked from the State Farm in Biała Nyska and flown to Austria."
The official press carried an article expressing the need for reactivating trade unions, including a "workers' Solidarity" separated from the so-called "extremes". By a decision of the KZR, NSZZ "Solidarity" of Greater Poland, Janusz Pałubicki was elected chairman of the KZR, who then proceeded to conduct underground activities. From this time on, he went into hiding and personally signed all the declarations of the KZR, and subsequently of the Interim Region Board (TZR). J. Pałubicki was also a member of the nationwide TKK NSZZ "Solidarity".
The internment camp for women in Gołdapia was liquidated. During its existence, it housed nearly four hundred women from around the country. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "29 persons interned at the camp in Nysa organized a demonstration against martial law in front of the building". Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On July 24 in Duszniki Zdrój, the monument for Soviet soldiers was dowsed with paint."
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Wrocław, two transmitters of <<Radio Solidarity>> working alternately were used to air a broadcast on FM".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "A fundraiser was organized at the Szczecin Poultry Plant <<Poldrob>> in Szczecin in order to help the interned and their families".
TKK published the declaration "5xNO". This expressed disappointment with the failure to fulfill the postulates of the Association. At the same time, a call was made to ensure the peaceful course of demonstrations on August 31 on the anniversary of the Gdańsk Agreements. A document was also presented, entitled "Underground society: Initial assumption for the program declaration of TKK NSZZ "S", in which a call was made to create an underground society in various spheres of activity, from aid for the repressed to business operations.
The Court of the Warsaw Military District sentenced Mirosław Krupiński, the chairman of the National Strike Committee in December 1981, to a term of imprisonment of 3.5 years. The TKK appointed the Coordination Office of NSZZ "Solidarity" abroad with its seat in Brussels under the management of Jerzy Milewski.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "250 farmers from the commune of Lipowa sent a petition to the Provincial Governor, protesting against the location of a new provincial waste dump on the territory of the commune".
In Gorzów Wielkopolski, the Movement of Independent Youth was created in order to execute self-education objectives. The Movement's paper becomes the "Szaniec" – The Information Bulleting of the Movement of Independent Youth.
On the anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising, a publicly placed speaker at the Powązki cemetery was used to broadcast a special speech prepared by Zbigniew Bujak.
An Interim Plant Committee of NSZZ "Solidarity" was established at the "Stilon" factory in Gorzów. A sentence was handed down regarding thirteen "Solidarity" activists in Bełchatów, accused of continuing trade union activities and publishing the "Solidarność Wojenna" bulletin. The severest sentences were three years of imprisonment.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "18 employees of the Lenin Open-Hearth Furnace Plant of the Steel Complex in Kraków stopped work for 15 minutes in order to protest against the start of the trial of St. Handzlik – an activist of NSZZ "Solidarity" from the Lenin Steel Mill".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "The FM waveband in Olsztyn was used yet again by two illegal radio stations, which transferred clandestine (coded) correspondence between themselves".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Kraków, a group of 15 persons attempted to organize a <<march along the route of the 1st Brigade>> – 7 people were arrested."
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On August 7 in Łódź, a 6-man informal group was disclosed, mainly composed of employees from various workplaces who were engaged in distributing pamphlets and illegal publications. Some 500 pamphlets were seized, which were ready for distribution".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In the night hours, a 5 minute broadcast was aired by Radio <<Fighting Solidarity>> in Wrocław on the FM waveband".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the Saint Marcin Church in Warsaw an illegal meeting of former activists of the Regional Board of NSZZ "Solidarity" was held, during which preparations for a general strike in the region were discussed".
The two underground representations of NSZZ "S" acting in Poznań (KZR and TKK) merged into the Interim Regional Board of Greater Poland. Janusz Pałubicki was elected its chairman. In Szczecin, the funeral of Danuta and Andrzeja Jurczyk (son and daughter in law of Marian Jurczyk) took place. They died on August 5, 1982, most probably by their own hands. The funeral turned into an enormous demonstration at the CentralCemetery in Szczecin.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "7 employees of the Malleable Cast Iron Foundry [and Connector Production Facility] in Zawiercie refused to commence work following a reduction of their wages". Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the Precision Apparatuses Production Plant "Mera-Pafal" in Świdnica an 8-man group was revealed that was conducted activities within the illegal organizational structures of former NSZZ <<Solidarity>>".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On August 2 inBiałystok an informal 15-man group of employees from various workplaces was revealed, who were carrying out clandestine trade union activities of NSZZ "Solidarity" and were engaged in preparing and distributing pamphlets. During a search, officers seized, among others items, 900 pamphlets, 987 publications, 9 reams of paper, and typographic materials".
Upon the next monthly anniversary of martial law, street demonstrations were held in Warsaw, Gdańsk, Wrocław, and Nowa Huta. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the internment camp in Kwidzyn, internees raised a flag with the lettering NSZZ <<Solidarity>>".
In Kwidzyn, the prison service battered 81 internees, 38 severely.
The All-Polish Resistance Committee of Farmers (OKOR) was established. It comprised, among others, Jan Malinowski and Józef Teliga.
The Minister of Science and Higher Education dismissed the vice-chancellor of WrocławUniversity, Professor Józef Łukaszewicz, from his post. As a sign of protest, all of the deputy vice-chancellors tendered their resignations. Wojciech Jaruzelski was welcomed by Leonid Brezhnev in the Crimea.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In the internment camp in Kwidzyn, 126 internees refused to go outdoors or eat their meals".
Demonstrations were held at SzczecinPort as well as in Elbląg on the occasion of the anniversary of the August strikes.
Residents of Garwolin started street marches during the television news program. This was continued for a number of days. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Garwolin during the broadcast of the main television news program, a protest march was organized and attended by some 70 people".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "156 employees of the Furniture Factory in Biała Podlaska signed a petition demanding the issuance of a permit for the construction of a new church in the city". A plaque was set on the wall of the Franciscan chapel in Radomsko, with the words inscribed "To the victims of December 1981 - »Solidarity«".
The Deputy Prime Minister, Mieczysław Rakowski, in interviews for the official mass media ensured that there would soon come a time for the "rebirth of all trade unions" without those participants undesired by the authorities - these being first and foremost the members of the KOR.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Garwolin a protest march was organized during the broadcast of the main television news program, with the participation of some 70 people".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At bakery no. 2 of the Powszechna Spółdzielnia Spożywców <<Społem>> cooperative in Konin, 6 employees ceased working for a period of 3 hours in connection with a reduction of their wages – bonuses – for the month of July".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Poznań, a 10-minute broadcast of <<Radio Solidarity Greater Poland>> was aired over the sound channel of the 1st television program".
In an official television broadcast, General Czesław Kiszczak warned against the effects of demonstrations that were planned by the opposition.
During a sermon delivered at Jasna Góra, the Primate of Poland, Józef Glemp, called for dialog. A rally was held at the "Solidarity" plaque on Kraszewskiego Street in Łódź, which was broken up by the ZOMO. More than one hundred people were arrested.
Representatives of the trade union authorities from a few "Solidarity" regions sent General Wojciech Jaruzelski a letter, in which they set out the terms and conditions of possible agreements, among others, pluralism and freedom of operation for the trade union movement.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the cross at Zwycięstwa Square [in Warsaw] a group of 300 people became hostile, chanting and shouting, and distributing pamphlets – 13 people were arrested.
Zbigniew Romaszewski was arrested in Warsaw. In Wrocław, "Radio Solidarity" - subordinate to the RKS - aired its first broadcast. Until the end of 1982, 6 broadcasts were aired in Wrocław and 7 in other cities of Lower Silesia. Primate Józef Glemp visited the parish of Zbrosza Duża, which was well-known via the indomitable approach of its parish priest, Father Czesław Sadłowski.
Following a service commemorating the anniversary of the August Agreements, which was held in the Cathedral in Szczecin, a demonstration took place and protestors clashed with the militia. In Gorzów Wielkopolski, the Youth Resistance Movement was established, which subsequently published the first edition of the "Iskra" paper. The group was broken up by the Secret Police on November 6, 1982. It was later re-established as the Movement of Independent Youth, and published the "Szaniec" paper. At the student hostel of the Poznań Polytechnic, the authorities uncovered an underground printing facility run by students. Following an investigation that lasted a number of months, many people were arrested, leading to the largest political trial in Poznań.
On the second anniversary of the Gdańsk Agreements, there were street demonstrations in 34 provinces and 66 towns. The militia used weapons on a few occasions. In Lubin, the use of firearms by ZOMO and Secret Police officers led to the death of two demonstrators (Andrzej Trajkowski and Mieczysław Poźniak). The third died after a few days (Michał Adamowicz). In Gdańsk, tear gas poisoning resulted in the death of Piotr Sadowski. In Wrocław, one of the gunshot victims, Kazimierz Michalczyk, died after a few days. There were clashes with demonstrators in Nowa Huta. In total, 5,131 people were arrested. Magistrates' courts sentenced 3,023 people, and 126 were referred to other courts. 189 people were interned. Automatic telephone connections were suspended.
The Bishop of Katowice, Herbert Bednorz, appointed the Bishop's Committee for Assistance at the Parish of the Holy Trinity in Bielsko-Biała.
In the afternoon, a group of youths returning from a service at Jasna Góra, which was held in order to inaugurate the new school year, were attacked by the militia. This led to serious public unrest, which lasted until the late night hours. According to the data from the Provincial Command of the Citizens' Militia in Częstochowa, as a result of the incidents of August 31 and September 1, some 270 people were arrested in the city. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the internment center in Załęż near Rzeszów, 7 internees commenced a protest hunger strike". The protest against the usage of firearms and the deaths of demonstrators gathered some 10,000 citizens of Lubin. A similar demonstration took place on the next day.
In Lubin, successive street demonstrations were organized.
The Social Resistance Committee issued a statement summarizing the events of August 31, in which it emphasized the inflexibility of the authorities and the ineffectiveness of the demonstrations. In connection with the above it was stated that the emphasis should shift from street demonstrations to the organization of an underground society, which would become a more effective means of exerting pressure.
KOR activists – Jacek Kuroń, Jan Lityński, Adam Michnik, and Henryk Wujec - hitherto interned, were arrested. Jan Józef Lipski and Mirosław Chojecki were tried in absentia. All of them were charged with undertaking preparations aimed at overthrowing the political system of the People's Republic of Poland.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the Department of the Mechanisms of "Fiat" at the Small Cubic Capacity Motor Car Plant in Bielsko Biała, a fundraiser was held in order to enable the payment of the fines incurred by employees of the plant who participated in the incidents of August 31".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Poznań, a 10-minute broadcast of <<Radio Solidarity Greater Poland>> was aired over the sound channel of the 1st television program".
The TKK issued a declaration that pointed out that an agreement would help solve the present conflict. At the same time, it appealed for a commemoration on September 30 of the memory of those who had perished on August 31 with a minute's silence and by wearing signs of mourning.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On September 7 in Żyrardów, paint was poured on the information board of the Municipal Committee of the PZPR."
The Court of the Warsaw Military District handed down a sentence in the trial concerning the murder of Sergeant Zdzisław Karos. Robert Chechłacz was sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 25 years, while seven other people were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from 2 years (suspended) to 13 years. In 1989, Robert Chechłacz was pardoned. Father Sylwestr Zych was sentenced to 4 years of imprisonment (following an appeal lodged by the prosecutor's office with the Supreme Court, the sentence was increased to 6 years).
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On September 9 in Łódź, the authorities uncovered an illegal organization under the name Youth Self-Defense Committee – KSM, which grouped 30 secondary school students. The members of the organization were engaged in preparing and distributing pamphlets." During a search, 1 machine for the simultaneous preparation of 40 pamphlets and 400 membership declarations, which were ready for distribution among the youth were seized.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "80 employees of the Pomeranian Furniture Factory in Nowe refused to take their wages for the month of August, demanding the receipt of compensation".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On September 11 in the Waterworks Equipment Production Plant in Mława, 5 employees refused to taker their wages for the month of August, demanding a raise".
In Hrubieszowo, more than 100 political prisoners commenced a hunger strike, demanding that they receive "political" status. The campaign lasted for more than two weeks.
Jan Józef Lipski, a collaborator of KSS KOR, was arrested immediately upon his return to Poland.
The 187th Plenary Conference of the Polish Episcopate convened in Warsaw. The bishops once again called for a dialog and for an "agreement and settlement".
In the so-called KatyńValley at the Warsaw Municipal Cemetery of Powązki, a demonstration was organized with the participation of 150 people on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the attack of the USSR on Poland in 1939. This was filmed by representatives of American Television. 13 people were arrested. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On September 17 near the cafeteria in Lublin, where a ZOMO unit receives meals, an explosive device was detonated – material losses approx. 50,000 zlotys."
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Poznań, a broadcast of <<Radio Solidarity Greater Poland>> was aired over the sound channel of the 1st television program".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the prison in Braniewo, 40 people sentenced under the martial law decree organized a 3-day protest hunger strike".
Some 800 people arrived at the PowązkiMunicipalCemetery for the funeral of Henryk Kuroń (the father of Jacek). The funeral immediately turned into a political demonstration – patriotic songs were sung. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In the township of Kruszyn, commune of Bolesławiec, an intervening militia patrol car was pelted with stones".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Bielsko Biała, an illegal radio station started broadcasting on the FM waveband from 20:00".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At the PowązkiMunicipalCemetery in Warsaw, during the funeral of Henryk Kuroń (the father of Jacek Kuroń), those gathered – approx. 800 people – sang the hymn of <<Solidarity>>".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At approx. 19:00, a group of some 130 people started to pray at the monument of the Shipyard Workers in Gdańsk – 6 people were arrested". A sentence was passed by the Provincial Court in Skierniewice, with Zbigniew Kok being imprisoned for 4, and Witold Ufa to 3 years for the preparation and distribution of pamphlets.
The Interim Plant Committee of NSZZ "Solidarity" WSK "PZL-Rzeszów" was established. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "At 21:45, lights went out at the guild hall of the <<Borynia>> Hard Coal Mine; this informed the miners of the creation in Jastrzębie [Zdrój] of a Clandestine Interplant Coordination Committee of NSZZ <<Solidarity>>".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On September 26, an attempt was made at hijacking a "Żlin" aircraft from the airport of the "PRL Aeroklub" in Przylepa near Zielona Góra".
The "Rzeczpospolita" published a postulate for dissolving all trade unions that were active before December 13, 1981. Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Legnica, a <<Radio Solidarity>> broadcast was aired on the FM waveband".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "After Mass at the Saint Brygida Church in Gdańsk, at approx. 18:50 a group numbering 2,000 people proceeded towards the monument of the Shipyard Workers in Gdańsk, shouting <<give us Lech back>>, <<Crows to the Red Square>> and <<Enough is enough>>". Jan Pacuła from the RKW of Lesser Poland was arrested (he was subsequently sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 2.5 years).
A demonstration along with clashes with the militia took place in Nowa Huta. In Warsaw, a marble plaque with the words inscribed "for the memory of those who died for "Solidarity", for freedom and democracy, was unveiled in Warsaw on the wall of the Podwale in the OldTown". A hidden loudspeaker was used to air the signal of radio "Solidarity" and the hymn of "Solidarity" - sung by internees from Białołęka.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "The Kitchen personnel at Primary School No. 2 in Lwówek Śląski refused to take their salary for the month of September due to its respective reduction".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "80 employees working on the first shift at Będzin Wire Drawing Mill [in Będzin] refused to admit employees of the second shift to work, protesting in this way against working on free Saturdays".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "In Częstochowa, an illegal meeting was organized by former activists of the NSZZ from large industrial plants, during which future tactics of operation were discussed".
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "19 employees of the Mechanical Department at the "Komuna Paryska" Production Plant of Telephone Equipment in Warsaw stopped working, demanding in turn a pay raise".
In Wrocław, a joint operation of the Internal Affairs Department and Secret Police resulted in the arrest of Władysław Frasyniuk, the chairman of RKS Lower Silesia and a member of the TKK.
The deputy justice minister Tadeusz Skóra presented information to the effect that during the first six months of 1982 courts had considered the cases of 435 people who were continuing trade union activities. Of these, 225 were sentenced to a term of imprisonment of up to 3 years, 82 to 3 years, and 59 to more than 3 years.
Records of the Ministry of Internal Affairs: "On October 7 and 8 in the township of Łapanów, assailants destroyed a plaque commemorating those Secret Police and Citizens' Militia officers who had died fighting the reactionary underground".
Parliament passed acts on trade unions and organizations of farmers. The latter was banned from forming unions or associations at all. All of the trade unions existing before December 13, 1981 were dissolved. In Gdańsk, street demonstrations took place. During the KPN trial, Leszek Moczulski was sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 7 years, while the remaining three defendants were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from 2 to 5 years.
The TKK published a declaration ensuring the existence of the Union irrespective of the activities of the authorities aimed at its dissolution. At the same time, it called for - a month in advance - a four-hour protest strike on November 10 (sometime later, this was extended to eight hours). Following the banning of "Solidarity", the USA increased sanctions against Poland. The US government suspended the most favored nation clause in commercial relations, hitherto enjoyed by Poland.